Embedded Systems

[https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/classification-of-embedded-systems/]

Embedded Systems

  • One that has software embedded within the computer hardware, usually with a Read One Memory chip (ROM).

  • A computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system.

System on a Chip (SoC)

  • An integrated circuit that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic systems on a single computer chip.

Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOSs)

  • An OS intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays.

  • Designed to have zero latency.

  • Examples in Use: Military & Space applications.

Internet of Things (IoT)

  • A system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals, or people that are provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

  • Wearable Technology

    • Watches, Exercise, Medical devices, etc.

    • Often communicates through bluetooth.

  • Home Automation

    • Security - Cameras, locks, lights, etc.

    • Thermostats

    • Sound Systems

    • Personal Assistants

  • Communicates via Wi-Fi

ICS/SCADA

  • ICS - Industrial Control Systems

    • Encompasses several types of control systems and associated instrumentation used for industrial process control.

  • SCADA - Supervisor Control and Data Acquisition

    • Used by Utilities and Manufacturing

    • Collects data from factories, plants, or other remote locations and forwards it to a central computer that manages or controls the system.

  • PLC - Programmable Logic Controllers

    • Single use computers used in manufacturing.

  • Security

    • Access Control

    • Monitoring

HVAC

  • Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems.

  • Many use computer networks or smart tech to regulate airflow and temp.

  • Security

    • Network partitioning/segmentation.

    • Access control.

    • Monitoring.

Printers / Multi-Function Devices

  • MFD - Multi-Function Devices- used for networked printing, scanning, and copying.

  • Web accessible.

  • Generally little access control.

Special Purpose Devices

  • Medical Devices

  • Vehicles

  • Aircraft / Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAV)

Securing Embedded Devices

  • Secure by design and default.

  • Security integrated into the tech.

  • System hardening.

  • Shielded from electromagnetic interference.

  • Network security - encryption via TLS.

  • Security verification.

  • Automated patching.

  • Anomaly alerts.

Camera Systems

[https://www.professormesser.com/security-plus/sy0-501/embedded-systems/]

  • Surveillance Cameras/CCTV

  • In most cases, these cameras are connecting back to a central video recorder (DVR/NVR).

    • Often can communicate with the DVR/NVR via TCP/IP.

  • A lot of cameras are connected via PoE, so you can view what's on the camera if broken into the system.

  • IP Connected systems.