There is nothing that should impede life safety goals.
Human life is always top priority.
Barriers: Walls, Fences
Guards / Dogs
Barricades / Bollards
Used for crime deterrence.
It is important to have the correct lightning when using various types of surveillance equipment.
Lighting controls and switches should be in protected, locked, and centralized areas.
Continuous Lighting - An array of lights that provide an even amount of illumination across an area.
Controlled Lighting - An organization should erect lights and use illumination in such a way that does not blind its neighbors or any passing cars, trains, or planes.
Standby Lighting - Lighting that can be configured to turn on and off at different times so that potential intruders think that different areas of the facility are populated.
Redundant or Backup Lighting - Should be available in case of power failures or emergencies.
Response Area Illumination - Takes place when an IDS detects suspicious activities and turns on the lights within the specified area.
Fencing, gates, and cages.
Varying heights, gauge, and mesh provides security features.
CPTED - Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
Tamper Resistant and Evident
Locking Cabinets - Paper & Electronics
Computer Cable Locks - Reduce Theft
Who has keys?
Where are they stored?
Combination locks - rather than use a key, turn.
Cipher locks - electronic locks.
Grade 1 - Commercial
Grade 2 - Heavy Duty Residential, Light Commercial
Grade 3. - Residential Throw-Away Locks
Low - No pick or drill resistance provided.
Medium - A little pick resistance.
High - Higher degree of pick resistance.
Double doors, where only one can be opened at a time.
Use to control personnel access.
Manually operated or automatic.
Only room for one person.
Shielding - The process of preventing electronic emissions from your computer systems from being used to gather intelligence and preventing outside electronic emissions from disrupting information-processing abilities.
Faraday Cage or Faraday Shield - An enclosure used to block electromagnetic fields. A Faraday shield may be formed by a continuous covering of conductive material or in the case of a Faraday cage, by a mesh of such materials.
Bollards are small concrete pillars, sometimes containing lights or flowers.
They are used to stop people from driving through a wall, often put between a building and a parking lot.
They can be arranged to form a natural path for walking.
There are different technologies to grant access to a building.
User Activated - A user does something such as swipe a card or use biometrics.
Proximity Devices / Transponders - A system recognizes the presence of an object. 'Electronic Access Control Tokens' are a generic term for proximity authentication systems.
Centralized access control consists of card readers, central computer, and electronic door latches.
Pros: easy to use, provides an audit record, easy to change access permissions.
Cons: can be used by others if lost, people may 'tailgate'.
Based upon a specific biometric measurement.
Fingerprint, Iris Scan, Retina Scan, Hand Scan, Voice, Facial Recognition, etc.
Greater confidence of claimed identity.
Motion Detection - Location monitoring and alarms based on movement.
Infrared Detection - Detects changes in infrared radiation or thermal heat.
HVAC - Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning
Backup Power / UPS
Zone-Based Heating & Cooling
Hot and Cold Aisles
With a hot aisle, hot air outlets are used to cool the equipment.
With cold aisles, cold air intake is used to cool the equipment.
Combining the two, you have cold air intake from below the aisle and hot air outtake above it, providing constant circulation.
Fire Prevention, Detection, & Suppression
Prevention - Includes training employees on how to react, supplying the right equipment, enabling fire suppression supply, proper storage of combustible elements.
Detection - Includes alarms, manual detection pull boxes, automatic detection response systems with sensors, etc.
Suppression - The use of a suppression agent to put out a fire.
Two primary examples of fire-suppression systems in use are fire extinguishers and fixed systems.
Different types of suppression agents:
Halon and Halon Substitutes
Fire Extinguisher Ratings
Wet Pipe - Filled with pressurized water.
Dry Pipe - Fills with water only when activated.
Deluge - Discharges water from all sprinklers when activated.
Pre-Action - Dry pipe that converts to a wet pipe when an alarm is activated.
Foam Water Sprinkler - Uses water and fire-retardant foam.
Gaseous Fire Suppression - Displaces oxygen.
A formerly used, phased out method of fire suppression used for fires with electrical equipment.
NIST Technical Note 1622
Supplements security guards.
Work in conjunction with guards or other monitoring mechanisms.
Provide points of view not easily achieved with guards.
Refuse Collection Areas
Purpose - To detect, assess, and/or identify intruders.
CCTV Environment: Internal/External
Field of View: Area to be monitored.
Illumination: Lighting, natural or artificial.
Integration with other security controls.
Also known as a 'proximity detector', this IDS uses a magnetic or electrostatic field to detect intrusions.
The Electrostatic IDS creates a balanced electrostatic field between itself and the object being monitored.
If an intruder comes within a certain range of the monitored object, it causes capacitance change.
The IDS can detect this change and sound an alarm.