AKA Packet Sniffers.
Gathering packet-level information on a network.
Knowing what's on your network.
Fing (iOS & Android)
Software utility that scans a range of IP addresses and tests for the presence of known vulnerabilities in software configuration and accessible services.
Relies upon a database of known vulnerabilities.
Nexpose Community Edition: Scan web apps, databases, and virtual environments.
Qualys FreeScan: Checks for hidden malware and SSL issues, among other network vulnerabilities.
ZAP - Zed Application Proxy
Discovers security vulnerabilities in web apps.
Platforms used for penetration testing and risk assessments.
Frameworks contain a set of exploits for known vulnerabilities.
Metasploit - https://www.metasploit.com
Browser Exploitation Framework (BeEF) - pentesting tool for exploiting web vulnerabilities.
Debian-derived Linux distro designed for digital forensics and pentesting.
Preinstalled with numerous pentesting programs.
Can be run from HD, Live CD, or Live USB.
Supported platform of the Metasploit Framework.
Searchable info resource for Social Engineering.
Gather info about WiFi networks.
Detect access points (rogue or valid).
Break encryption keys.
Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA): A software vulnerability scanner to analyze targeted Microsoft systems, to detect whether software security patches or baseline config settings are missing.
Center for Internet Security (CIS)
A technique to ID operating systems, apps, and services on a system.
Narrows vuln searches.
Free download for Windows & Linux
Read/Write TCP & UDP network connections.
Run from the command line.
Used to disclose passwords and assess password strength.
Online password-cracking tools enable you to type in the hash and get the password returned in plain text.
Cain & Able
John the Ripper
Systems or networks exposed to capture malicious activity.
Gather investigation evidence.
Study attack strategies.
Separate from any business network.
Means "hidden writing" - hiding messages, often in other media, so that unintended recipietns are not even aware of any message.
Least significant bit insertion.
Masking and filtering.
Algorithms and transofrmations.
Common steganography tools include:
Sanitization - the process of removing contents from a device or media.
Cryptographic Erase (CE)
A router function.
An application compares the incoming or outgoing IP address ot an ACL.
Other types of anti-spoofing perform similar functions on MAC address or switch ports.