Security Tools

Protocol Analyzers

  • AKA Packet Sniffers.

  • Gathering packet-level information on a network.

  • Examples:

    • Wireshark

    • TCPDump

Network Scanners / Mappers

  • Knowing what's on your network.

  • Network enumeration.

  • Examples:

    • Solarwinds

    • Nmap/ZenMap

    • Fing (iOS & Android)

Vulnerability Scanner

  • Software utility that scans a range of IP addresses and tests for the presence of known vulnerabilities in software configuration and accessible services.

  • Relies upon a database of known vulnerabilities.

  • Examples:

    • Nessus (Tenable)

    • OpenVAS: Linuix

    • Nexpose Community Edition: Scan web apps, databases, and virtual environments.

    • Qualys FreeScan: Checks for hidden malware and SSL issues, among other network vulnerabilities.


  • ZAP - Zed Application Proxy

  • Discovers security vulnerabilities in web apps.

Exploitation Frameworks

  • Platforms used for penetration testing and risk assessments.

  • Frameworks contain a set of exploits for known vulnerabilities.

  • Examples:

  • Browser Exploitation Framework (BeEF) - pentesting tool for exploiting web vulnerabilities.

Kali Linux

  • Debian-derived Linux distro designed for digital forensics and pentesting.

  • Preinstalled with numerous pentesting programs.

  • Can be run from HD, Live CD, or Live USB.

  • Supported platform of the Metasploit Framework.

Social Engineering Toolkit (SET)

  • Searchable info resource for Social Engineering.

Wireless Scanners

  • Gather info about WiFi networks.

  • Detect access points (rogue or valid).

  • Break encryption keys.

  • Examples:

    • Aerodump

    • Kismet/KisMAC

    • Netstumbler

    • Vistumber

    • inSSIDer

Configuration Compliance

  • Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA): A software vulnerability scanner to analyze targeted Microsoft systems, to detect whether software security patches or baseline config settings are missing.

  • Center for Internet Security (CIS)

  • Nessus

  • A technique to ID operating systems, apps, and services on a system.

  • Narrows vuln searches.

  • Netcat

    • Free download for Windows & Linux

    • Read/Write TCP & UDP network connections.

    • Run from the command line.

Password Crackers

  • Used to disclose passwords and assess password strength.

  • Online password-cracking tools enable you to type in the hash and get the password returned in plain text.

  • Examples:

    • Brutus

    • Cain & Able

    • John the Ripper

    • THC Hydra

    • Hashcat

Honeypots / Honeynets

  • Use:

    • Systems or networks exposed to capture malicious activity.

    • Gather investigation evidence.

    • Study attack strategies.

  • Separate from any business network.


  • Means "hidden writing" - hiding messages, often in other media, so that unintended recipietns are not even aware of any message.

  • Approaches:

    • Least significant bit insertion.

    • Masking and filtering.

    • Algorithms and transofrmations.

  • Common steganography tools include:

    • OpenPuff

    • Camouflage

    • StegHide

    • rSteg

    • zSteg

    • Outguess

Data Sanitization Tools

  • Sanitization - the process of removing contents from a device or media.

  • Examples:

    • DBAN

    • BCWipe

    • Cryptographic Erase (CE)

Command Line Tools

  • man

  • ping

  • netstat

  • tracert

  • nslookup/dig

  • arp

  • ip/ifconfig

  • tcpdump

  • nmap

  • netcat

  • SysInternals Suite

    • Autoruns

    • Process Explorer


  • A router function.

  • An application compares the incoming or outgoing IP address ot an ACL.

  • Other types of anti-spoofing perform similar functions on MAC address or switch ports.